Copper is a metallic chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a bluish-white metal that resembles its group mineral silver and as such has been called the silver metal. It is the third most abundant element by mass in the Earth’s crust after iron and aluminium. Copper is widely used as a wiring material, electrical component, and high-value industrial metal.
Copper has one of the highest values per unit volume of any metal; even more so than gold or silver due to its low specific gravity and ease of transmission by wire. The purity of copper varies depending on the source and end use; industrial grade may contain carbon impurities while copper penny coins have less than 1% copper content. Pure copper exists in nature mainly in combination with oxygen in oxides, such as copper oxide (cuprous oxide). It is also found in organic form as minerals such as chalcojumite or copper glance.
History of Copper
Copper was used in ancient times for building construction, making metal tools and weapons, and printing. The name of Cyprus, the first capital of the island and a major source of copper during ancient times, is thought to have derived from Kupriotes. It was also used in ancient Greece for making bronze, which consisted of Cu-Cu-O.
In medieval Europe, copper was mainly mined from Cu-Pb ore deposits in Cornwall and Looe Island. These ore bodies were exploited extensively during the Industrial Revolution and are now completely depleted.
It can be found naturally in three main ores: native copper (Cu), as ore minerals chalcocite (Cu2S) or chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) or as mixed oxides such as bornite (Cu5FeS2). As such copper is mostly obtained by mining.
Physical Properties of Copper
Copper has a density of 7.86 g/cm3, which is greater than that of aluminium or iron.
The electrical conductivity of copper is the greatest of any metal, and it has the highest thermal conductivity of any known metal.
Atomic radius: 124 pm
Atomic mass: 63.546 g/mol
Crystal structure: face-centered cubic
Refractive index: 1.47
Composition of copper
Copper has a density of 8.94 g/cm3, exceeding that of aluminium (7.9 g/cm3) in air and iron (7.8 g/cm3) in pure iron metal. The standard electrode potential for the element is 1.58 volts. Metallic copper is stable at temperatures from 4000 K to 300 °C; it begins to deform at 750 °C and becomes unstable at 1000 °C. The physical properties of pure copper are second only to those of its close relative silver; this high resistance to corrosion is owing to its form and structure as an alpha transition metal-oxo complex ion ic crystal, whose molecules are linked by oxygen atoms in such a fashion that each copper atom has three oxide ligands attached to it, as well as four more from the other ions that make up the unit cell: two from oxygen and two from copper itself.
Uses of copper
Copper is used in many alloys, usually to give other metals hardness and resilience against corrosion. Copper also has a long history of use in tools and weapons; it is the standard in electrical wiring, plumbing, and building construction. Some copper compounds are toxic and corrosive. Because of its high conductivity, some copper compounds are used as an agent to create semiconductors, and copper sulfides serve as a semiconductor material.
Copper is also used in batteries as the positive electrode where it serves as one of the electrodes of a cell (i.e., Cu2+ ions). The modern definition refers only to electrical conduction through copper or metallic connections rather than to chemical properties.
Density of copper
The density of copper is 8.89 g/cm3.
Properties of copper based metals
Copper is widely used in electrical wiring, plumbing, and to carry current in high-voltage transmission and distribution lines. The conductivity of copper has made it a staple metal for electricity and copper wire was one of the first conductors used on high-voltage power lines.
The corrosion resistance of copper makes it useful for building construction, as well as its physical strength. Copper is also used as a lining in water tanks and pipes; such uses are increasingly common because of increasing awareness about the health hazards associated with lead and galvanized steel.
How to Calculate density of copper?
To calculate the density of copper, you’ll need to know its atomic mass. The atomic mass is given as:
A = 0.006427 amu
Now, in order to find out how much matter there is in a sample of copper, you will multiply the atomic mass by Avogadro’s number. This number is given as:
N = 6.02214 x 1023
The density (ρ) of a substance is then calculated using the formula for specific volume:
ρ = N x V / A
Factors that affect copper density?
Temperature, pressure, purity, and the presence of other metals.
The density of copper is affected by its atomic weight (0.286 g/cm3), melting point (−270 °C or −454 °F), boiling point (1400 °C or 2625 °F), surface tension (at 25 °C in air) and viscosity of the liquid at that temperature. Copper has a low vapor pressure because its vaporization temperature is high enough to prevent evaporation. With no solid form at atmospheric pressure at room temperature, copper exists in a gaseous phase with a density less than 1% that of water, which can float it.
Effect on density of copper when heated up.
The density of copper is one of the many properties that can be measured. One of the main factors that affects this is the temperature of copper. When heated up, copper becomes more dense and its atoms shrink closer together. This makes it harder for them to get around.
Copper does not change density much when cooled down, but it does become less dense as other materials are added into it. For example, when a mixture of copper and zinc metal is made, zinc will take up most of the space in the mixture because it is denser than copper.
The density of copper becomes less toward both ends: 1) lower temperature (cooling down) 2) higher temperature (heating up).
Copper is a soft and malleable metal that is a good conductor of heat and electricity. It has a density of about 8.9 g/cm3. Copper is used in a wide variety of industries and has many uses both commercially and domestically. The density of copper varies depending on the purity of the metal and the alloy used to make the copper.
What is the atomic number of copper?
The atomic number of copper is 29. Its chemical symbol is Cu and its periodic table icon is a 3.
The atomic mass of copper is 82.492755 grams.
The atomic mass of copper is slightly more than that of oxygen (81.93353 grams).
What is the metal’s name?
Copper is a metallic chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a bluish-white metal that resembles its group mineral silver and as such has been called the ‘silver metal’. It is the third most abundant element by mass in the Earth’s crust after iron and aluminium. Copper is widely used as a wiring material, electrical component, and high-value industrial metal.
Copper has one of the highest values per unit volume of any metal; even more so than gold or silver due to its low specific gravity and ease of transmission by wire. The purity of copper varies depending on the source and method of extraction, ranging from 92% (material contained within an ore) down to 55% for commercially traded copper powder. Low-purity copper compounds are used for antiseptic fillings in toothbrushes, money, and wounds; as pigments (e.g., in paints), line dyes for yarns and tracings; as binding agents in photographic film (e.g., cellulose acetate); as a coating on steel (inside pipelines); as electrical insulation (wires); mixed with other elements to make abrasive pastes; ion exchange resins; semiconductors; catalysts (e.g., used in gasoline engines). Copper compounds are used as blueing agents for ceramics, as oxidative ferric chlorides in water treatment applications, and in the production of stain resistant paints; anti-fouling paints for marine applications; food preservation products e.g., pickling brines for fish sauce.
Physically, copper looks like a heavy metal with small faces that are characteristically dendritic with scale like ends on them which makes it resistant to tarnish. It tarnishes in air but it can be polished to become shiny again through repeated cleaning.
What is the metal’s color?
Copper is a bright silver-blue metal, but it can appear mottled with brownish tones. It has a metallic feel and a high conductivity. This metal does not tarnish unless exposed to moist air or water. Because of its affinity for oxygen, it is used in m weatherproofing applications as an ozone stabilizer.
Due to its high eutectic melting point of 1045 °C, it is often used in the manufacture of highquality alloys including bronzes. It combines well with tin and zinc to form bronze, with antimony and silver to form brass, with iron in steel and with selenium to form pewter. Offered Commercially